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Replacing Titration with Biosensors

At ZP we see part of our mission as being part of Industry 4.0. this in part means replacing historical wet chemistry tests with modern sensing and biosensing technology. A commonly used industry procedure is titration. In this article we discuss titration and ZP's SenseItAll Platform that is able to replace titration.








INTRODUCTION


Titration is a laboratory technique used to determine the concentration of a substance, typically in a solution. It involves adding a known concentration of a reactant called a titrant to a substance of unknown concentration, called the analyte, until the reaction between the two is complete. The point at which the reaction is complete is called the endpoint of the titration, and the concentration of the analyte can be calculated based on the volume of titrant added and the concentration of the titrant. Titration is commonly used in chemistry, biology, and environmental science to determine the concentration of various substances, such as acids, bases, and proteins.


LIMITATIONS OF TITRATION


There are several potential problems with titration:

  • Human error: Titration relies on precise measurements and calculations, and small mistakes can lead to inaccurate results.

  • Reagent quality: The quality of the reagents used in titration can affect the accuracy of the results. If the reagents are contaminated or not properly stored, the results may be inaccurate.

  • Temperature: The temperature of the reagents and the reaction mixture can affect the accuracy of the titration.

  • pH: The pH of the solution being titrated can affect the accuracy of the titration.

  • Interferences: Some substances in the solution being titrated can interfere with the accuracy of the titration.

  • Endpoint detection: Determining the endpoint of the titration can be difficult, and small errors in endpoint detection can lead to inaccurate results.

  • Titration is not a digital process, but rather a wet chemistry procedure which is hard to digitize and to save the results efficiently into a quality system.


INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF TITRATION


There are several industries that use titration in their processes:


  • Pharmaceutical industry: Titration is used to measure the concentration of drugs in a solution, as well as to determine the purity of the drug.

  • Food and beverage industry: Titration is used to measure the acidity of food products, such as vinegar, wine, and dairy products.

  • Water treatment industry: Titration is used to measure the concentration of various chemicals in water, such as chlorine and fluoride.

  • Chemical industry: Titration is used to measure the concentration of various chemicals in solutions, such as acids and bases.

  • Environmental industry: Titration is used to measure the concentration of pollutants in water and air.

How do different industries use titration:

  • Biomedical industry: Titration is used to measure the concentration of various substances in blood and other bodily fluids.

  • Food and beverage industry: Titration is used in the production of various food and beverage products, such as wine, beer, and fruit juices, to measure the acidity or pH of the product. This helps to ensure that the product is safe and meets industry standards.

  • Environmental science: Titration is used in environmental science to measure the acidity or pH of water samples, soil samples, and other environmental samples. This helps to determine the impact of pollution or other environmental factors on the health of the ecosystem.

  • Pharmaceutical industry: Titration is used in the pharmaceutical industry to measure the purity and concentration of drugs and other pharmaceutical products. This helps to ensure that the products are safe and effective for use.

  • Chemical industry: Titration is used in the chemical industry to measure the concentration of various chemicals and to determine the purity of chemical products. This helps to ensure that the products meet industry standards and are safe for use.

  • Water treatment: Titration is used in the water treatment industry to measure the pH and chlorine levels of drinking water to ensure that it is safe for consumption.

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